Jews of the Black Holocaust:
[A Note on Terminology]
All references are in The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews
Moseh Hamis, a Jew residing in Barbados, prepared a will in Portuguese
dated March 26, 1684, in which he and his wife directed that 2,000 lbs. of sugar be paid after their death to his son Simon
Massiah "to help in the purchase of a young negress."
It is my last wish that our slaves named Consciencia
continue serving my said Wife all her life, & if she serves her faithfully, & with love and due respect as if I had
been living, I desire & direct that on the death of my said wife she shall become free, without any person or persons,
heirs of myself or my wife, having the right to keep her captive; this being a reward for her good service to me, and as I
hope to my wife.
Isaac Harby (1788-1828) was a Charleston, South Carolina, dramatist
and political essayist and president of the Reform Society of Israelites. He regularly wrote in opposition to "the abolitionist
society and its secret branches," as early as 1824. He edited the Quiver, the
Investigator, and the Southern Patriot, and contributed to the Mercury
and the Courier.
Aaron Hart, in his will of 1762, bequeathed to his servant, "a mourning
Ephraim Hart (1747-1825), a wealthy New York stockbroker, land speculator
and state senator (in 1810), enslaved at least one Black woman named "Silvia." He was an official of Congregation Shearith
Israel, and founder of its burial society Hebra Hesed ve Emet, as well as a member of the Philadelphia Synagogue.
Henry Hart, a "Jew Tailor" of Arundel County, Maryland, was accused
in 1752 of an illicit relationship with a maid. He was sentenced to serve a man named McNamara for six months "for the Damage
Sustained...on Acct. of the said Henry Hart begetting a Bastard child on the body of Susanna Talome, a Servant belonging to
the said McNamara."
Isaac Hart (d. 1780) was a founder and member of Newport's Touro Synagogue.
His firm, Naphtali Hart & Co., shipped and traded in Black slaves and cultivated their New England property with hired
hands and slaves. He sided with and supplied the British during the Revolutionary War and was shot to death by the Continental
Jacob Hart (b. 1781) came to New Orleans from New York in 1804 and traded
in slave ships and African people. In 1808, Hart advertised in Saint Dominigue for the sale of three Black people, including
a cook, two fisherman and a tailor who spoke English and French fluently. In 1810, he bought two Africans in Florida. The
1820 census reports that he imprisoned seven African people as slaves. He became the owner of a number of vessels, including
the schooner Celestine, and he brokered the sale of four African citizens. At the time of his bankruptcy
in 1823, he held fourteen Black hostages.
Levy Hart owned a general merchandise business firm in Savannah, Georgia,
in the early 1800s. "Unlucky in 'chattel,' he was exasperated by a very valuable slave, Sandy, who functioned as a butcher,
and was prone to 'take off' now and again."
Michael Hart (d. 1813), an Easton, Pennsylvania, Indian trader, "never
acquired wealth" but he owned a stone house, collected some silverplate, owned a slave and sold whiskey to the Indians "in
hundreds of gallons."
Though Michael Hart (d. 1861) was from New York, he owned a Virginia
plantation. When he feared that Richmond would be taken by the Union Army in the Civil War, his son escaped with "most of
the slaves belonging to the estate."
Moses Hart, son of Aaron, was sent to Albany
in 1786, where his mother:
wanted him to buy a good Negro wench for houseworke
[because the] last one had died -- and if the price was right [his] father wanted a Negro hand who knew something about farming,
could handle an ax, and work in the garden.
Myer Hart, of Easton on the Delaware, was the richest man in town and
one of the founding fathers. In 1768, he owned "two houses, a bond servant, six lots, a horse, a cow, and his stock in trade."
Nathan Hart, of Newport, informed the community by newspaper advertisement
on March 18, 1765, that among other things, he "also wants to purchase a negro."
Nathan Hart was the constable of Charleston in 1821, whose job it was
to punish runaway slaves. In October of 1827, he sold five slaves to Sophie Monsanto, and he was
listed as enslaving fifteen Blacks in the census of 1830.
Philip Hart (1727-1796) was a Charleston Jew with at least one African
captive named "Flora."
Samuel Hart came to Louisiana via England and by 1823 he owned half
of the steamboat United States and "four Negro slaves," $20,000 in bank stock and two lots in Louisville,
Kentucky. He had a "slave mistress" named "Polly" with a "mulatto child." Hart cut them from his will and added "Cecilia Beni,"
"a woman of color," and her four children, presumably all his.
David Hays (1732-1812),a farmer and storekeeper and son of Jacob
Hays, fought against the Indians in the French and Indian War. One of his Black captives was named "Darby." The inventory
of his estate, valued at $3,658.98, included the following items all valued greater than or equal to his Black humans.
An inventory of the Goods, Chattels &
Effect belonging to the
Estate of David Hays of the Township of Mount Pleasant, Deceased.
6 Cows @ $15 $90
1 Yoke Oxen 50
3 Calves @ $3.50 10.50
1 fat Steer 18
2 fat Cows @ $18 36
1 Bay Horse 10
1/2 field Rye 25
1/2 field Corn 15
1 field Corn 15
1 field Wheat 15
1 Lott Buckwheat 17.50
1 Windfan 12
10 Sheep @ $1 10
1 Lott wheat in the Sheaf 15
1 Lott Rye 15
1 Lott Oats 10
1 Lot Hay in the Barn 10
8 Stacks Hay @ $5 40
1 Mare & yearling Colt 14
14 Hogs @ $5 70
1 Ton of plaster 15.75
1 Waggon & Harness 25
4 feather beds 25
1 Lot silver Plate 15
1 Silver Watch 20
1 Black Girl 10
1 Black Woman 10
Grace Hays (d. 1740) conveyed in her will, "fifty ounces of sterling
wrought silver plate and the best negro slave which I should be possessed of..."
Judah Hays (1703-1764) was a New York merchant and shipowner who was
elected constable in 1736. His Black captives were allegedly part of a foiled 1741 plot to burn the city and escape from their
Jewish captors. "Like other well-to-do men of his period," wrote Harold Korn, "he bought negroes and the time of indentured
servants. He paid £80 for a negro man named Aaron and £20 for four years' service of an indentured boy named John Camble."
Hays had some apparent difficulties tracking his runaway slave "Sarah" when he ran this ad in February
Run away last Sunday night, from Judah Hays,
a Negroe wench, named Sarah, aged about 30 years; she is a likely wench, of a Mulatto complexion, was brought up at Amboy,
in Col. Hamilton's family, and has had several Masters in the Jerseys: She dresses very well, has a good parcel of cloaths,
and speaks good English. Whoever takes up the said wench, and brings her to her said master, or secures her in any county
goal, so that he may have her again, shall receive Forty Shillings reward, and reasonable charges. Whoever entertains said
wench, shall be prosecuted with the utmost rigour of the law. All masters of vessels, boat-men, &c. are forewarned of
conveying said wench away, as they shall answer the same.
N.B. Said wench has robb'd her said master,
in apparel, &c. upwards of Fifty Pounds.
And this one in May of 1751:
Whereas the subscriber hereof, has great reason
to apprehend that his Negroe wench Sarah, formerly advertised in this paper, has been and is now harboured and concealed by
some white person in this town; this is to give publick notice, that whoever brings said wench to me, or has her confined
in goal, shall immediately receive from me Five Pounds as a reward: And farther, that whoever will give information upon oath,
who it is that harbours and detains said Negroe wench, shall have Ten Pounds reward.
N.B. All masters of vessels, boatmen and others,
are cautioned against taking said wench on board, as she has lately been seen in sailors dress.
All references are in the publication: "The Secret Relationsip Between Blacks and Jews".
Samuel Hays (1764-1838) of Philadelphia was a slave owner and active
Mason who is remembered as a humanitarian because he arranged to have his slaves liberated. He reserved the right, however,
to keep them as indentured servants.
Abraham Baruch Henriques, a Portuguese Jew of Barbados, bequeathed to
his family the "liberty to sell houses, slaves or plantations..."
David Henriques was a Jamaican-Jewish slave-marketing "specialist" in
the late eighteenth century.
Manuel Dias Henriques (probably the same as Manuel
Diaz Enriquez) "lived in New Spain during the early 1620s where he had been a representative of Portuguese slave traders."
He was accused of being a Jew by Inquisitional authorities in early 17th century New Spain. Though unnamed in the historical
record, his uncle was described as, "a broker or dealer in Negro slaves."
Jacob Henry held a seat in the House of Commons of North Carolina in
1808. He was the son of Joel and Amelia Henry, who in 1810, held ten
Black African slaves. Jacob's household consisted of twelve Black hostages, according to the census of 1810; in 1820 that
number is believed to have increased to fifteen.
Isaac Hermann (1838-1917); author Jacob R. Marcus described him as follows:
In the Reconstruction period, Hermann was
a leader in the movement to organize the veterans into an association whose primary aim, it would seem, was to protect the
whites against the Negro freedmen....[H]e worked to restore white supremacy and to resist what he believed to be the encroachments
of the Negroes.
Samuel Hermann was a New Orleans merchant and banker and partner of
Asher Moses Nathan, and according to census data of 1810 he enslaved four Blacks, ten in 1820 and
seventeen in 1830. His dealings in Blacks were "extensive." In 1825, he sold 16 Black Africans to various farmers.
Solomon Heydenfeldt (1816-1890) of California gave up his judgeship
because his position automatically bound him to the Union but his sympathies were with the Confederacy. Jewish historians
have claimed that he was against slavery, and yet, contrarily, he wrote in a pamphlet of the "unjust and bitter crusades of
the Northern Abolitionists." He was a "passionate secessionist" and thought Lincoln's slave emancipation plan of 1861 to be
"tyranny." He opposed the importation of slaves into Alabama in 1849, not for any humanitarian reason, but because of "the
unproductiveness of slave labor, and its gradual, but certain, impoverishment of our State, is a sufficient reason for limiting
its farther propagation among us." He felt that when other states recognized the uneconomic character of slave labor they
would dump the freed Africans on Alabama.
Aaron Hirsch (1829-1911) was a French Jew who settled in New Orleans
and later became a resident of Mississippi and Arkansas. He was a strong Confederate who expressed the Jewish sentiment of
his time when in the 1860s he stated that:
the institution of slavery as it existed in
the south was not so great a wrong as people believe. The Negroes were brought here in a savage state; they captured and ate
each other in their African home. Here they were instructed to work, were civilized and got religion, and were perfectly happy.
Hirsch spoke in favor of slavery because the plantation owners were his customers. He owned slaves
and bought and sold them in his Batesville, Arkansas, business, Hirsch & Adler. During the Civil War he bought six Blacks
and later exchanged them for a farm. He was against the proposal to free the slaves who had fought for the Confederacy, reasoning
that the war was fought to keep them enslaved.
Haham Jeossuha His advertised in the Royal Gazette
of Kingston, Jamaica, for the return of a runaway slave on December 15, 1792.
Uriah Hyam (d. 1740) was a New York merchant, member of Shearith Israel
and slave maker. He held Black people against their will and one, named "Cavandro," he bequeathed to his son, Andrew
Israel, in his 1740 will.
Henry Hyams was a staunch supporter of slavery, Jewish leader, and lieutenant
governor of Louisiana in 1859.
Samuel Hyams of Charleston had more than twenty African hostages. As
the 1822 keeper of the jail, his job was to incarcerate freedom-seeking Blacks.
Levi Hyman was a merchant and landowner who lived at his plantation
estate in St. Andrew, Jamaica, called "Hyman's Delight." In 1811, he held 32 African citizens, 46 in 1821 and 45 in 1830.
Rev. Bernard Illowy (1812-1871) of Baltimore was a Jewish spiritual
leader and vocal supporter of the American slave system. He said that the Abolitionists had "thrown the country into a general
state of confusion" and called them "ambitious aspirants and selfish politicians."
Abraham Isaacks paid a £700 debt to Nathan Simson with "feathers, flour,
cider, negro slaves and cash."
Jacob Isaacks was a Newport merchant who frequently bought and sold
Black human beings even from his home on Broad Street. One 1777 advertisement offered "Foodstuffs, pork, negro man and woman."
He placed ads in the Newport Mercury over the next seven years for the sale of "negroes" at least
Born in Germany, Isaiah Isaacs (1747-1806) was the first Jew in Richmond,
Virginia, and a founder of the Congregation Beth Shalome, a grantor of its cemetery land and a slave driver. In 1788, he was
elected to the Common Hall. He was in slave-making alliance with Jacob I. Cohen and held Black Africans named "Lucy," "James,"
"Polly," "Henry" and "Rachel," and her children "Clement Washington" and "Mary." His business firm once took a Black captive
as security for a debt. Isaacs placed this advertisement in the Virginia Gazette or American Advertiser
on June 1, 1782:
TWENTY DOLLARS REWARD
RAN AWAY from the subscriber, living in the
town of Richmond, a very likely Negro woman named MOLLY, lately the property of Mr. Edward Busbel, of Gloucester-town; she
is much pitted with the small-pox, about twenty-two years old, and about five feet six inches high; had on when she went away,
a Virginia cloth vest and petticoat, checked; she had with her a checked apron, a callico petticoat, and a pair of leather
high-heeled country made shoes. I expect she will make towards Williamsburg or Gloucester-town, as she came from those parts
a few days ago. She had four horse-locks fastened on her legs when she went away. Whoever apprehends and delivers the said
Negro to me, shall receive the above reward and reasonable charges, paid by ISA[I]AH ISAACS.
Referring to the words of Isaacs, the great Jewish scholar Jacob R. Marcus wrote that "the following
phrases [are] redolent of the spirit of the great Virginians of [Isaacs'] generation":
Being of the opinion that all men are by nature
equally free, and being possessed of some of those beings who are unfortunate[ly], doomed to slavery, as to them I must enjoin
my executor a strict observance of the following clause in my will. My slaves...are hereby manumeted and made free, so that
after [30 years] they shall enjoy all the privileges and immunities of freed people....Each one of my slaves is to receive
the value of twenty dollars in clothing on the days of their manumission.
Samuel Isaacs (Isaaks), from one of the original 300 families to populate
Texas (comprised of 1,800 persons and 443 slaves), was allotted "a Spanish Grant of one league (4,428.4 acres grazing land)
and one labor (177.13612 acres farming land)," situated about midway between the Gulf Coast and the upriver settlement of
Solomon Isaacs of the New York family of that name imported some slaves
into Charlestown in 1755. In his will, probated in 1757, he left "a substantial inventory of goods, a house, books, mahogany
furniture, colored prints, silver plate, several Negro slaves -- three of whom were children -- two horses and a chaise, and
a quarter ownership of a sloop."
All references are in the publication: "The Secret Relationsip Between Blacks and Jews".
David Israel, Jewish inhabitant of Barbados, wrote his will in Portuguese
dated May 24, 1689, "revoking all previous Wills made if it should please God to take me to a better world I ask pardon for
all my sins & that my soul may be rec'd in mercy." Then, to his wife Sarah he left "a negress named Betty, and the use
of two negresses named below to go (eventually) to my daughter Esther when 21, or on her previous marriage."
To my son Isaac a male negro named Antonio....Also
my two negresses Maria Ibo and Esperansa they to be delivered by my wife unto Esther when she marries or attains 21 years....To
my daur. Rahel, wife of David Judah Rodriques £25 sterling payable by executors and 2 moreques
(=negro-boys (moliques)) for my grand-daughter Ester Zinha. To grandson Jacob son of David and
Rahel Judah Rodrigues a moliques named Robin....Also 2 negroes named Vallenty and Macaco which
I sent him for the service of the business.
Rabbi George Jacobs of Richmond, Virginia, held Black hostages and rented
them for a fee.
Gerrit Jacobs (d. 1754) from the Netherlands was a storekeeper and planter
with a plantation in Surinam called Nieuw Meerzorg, with 100 Black African slaves. He later ordered that number to be increased
to more than 200. To his wife Haija Sadoks, he bequeathed "ten domestic slaves," which he stipulated could not be sold. To
his stepson went "the Negro boy Present."
Israel Jacobs (c. 1741-1810) of Philadelphia held Black hostages but
was, nevertheless, well respected in his synagogue.
Jacob Jacobs of Charleston, an auctioneer, left an estate that included
ten slaves, horses, carriages, notes and bonds. He advertised in the Gazette of the State of South-Carolina
November 24, 1779:
Four Hundred Dollars Reward
RUN away from the Subscriber, on Sunday Night
last, two Negro Fellows named Hercules and Romeo, the former is about five Feet two or three Inches high, very black, speaks
good English, and had on when he went away a blue Coat and Jacket with a red Cape, and white metal buttons: The latter is
about five Feet high, of a yellowish Complexion, speaks good English, and had on a great Coat, red Jacket and black or Osnabrugs
Breeches. They both had hats, and may perhaps change their Dress, having carried all their Cloathing with them: The above
Reward will be given for the taking of the said two Negroes, and the half for either of them. All Masters of Vessels are forbid
carrying off the Negroes at their Peril.
John Jacobs, possibly a Jew, placed this advertisement in the Virginia Gazette on February 7, 1771:
RUN away from the Subscriber, in Amherst county,
on or about the 5th of October last, a new Negro man slave who calls himself CHARLES, which is every word of English he can
speak, he is a black fellow, with a smooth skin, of a middle size, well made for strength, appears to be about 18 years of
age, and has a good set of teeth. He was purchased from the Yanimerew the 14th of last September, and was one of the number
judged to have had the small pox. Had on when he left me a Negro cotton Jacket with buttons (both top and bottom) of brass,
a pair of cotton breeches, very long, with flat metal buttons to the waistband, cotton boots, and a coarse linen cap. Whoever
will deliver him to me, or secure him so that I may get him again, shall receive a reward of FIVE POUNDS; and if he is taken
out of the colony and brought home to me TEN POUNDS current money.
Joseph Jacob, of Newport, ran an advertisement in December of 1769:
"Notice: Reward $3 South Hampton, Long Island runaway Indian servant."
Levy Jacobs was a New Orleans and Mobile liquor and slave dealer who
advertised to "buy and sell Negroes" in 1819. In September of 1828, he notified the public that he was expecting about 100
prime, Virginia slaves, selected expressly
for this market -- among which are Ostlers, Carriage Drivers, Mechanics, Field Hands and Cooks, House Servants, seamstresses
and washer women.
As proprietor of one of the leading auctioneer houses of New Orleans, Levy Jacobs was reported
to have "paraded blacks on the slave block that was operated by Levy Jacobs and his Christian partner, George Asbridge." When
he was accused of selling Kentucky slaves and not the advertised Virginia slaves, Jacobs posted this notice:
Notice -- A report being circulated that I
have for sale no other than Kentucky slaves, I beg leave to state to the public that all the Negroes which I have on hand,
and shall hereafter keep for sale are and will be Virginia born Negroes, of good character; that the person who has stated
to the contrary, with the view of injuring me, I call upon in this public manner to come forward and support this charge if
he can, or hereafter hold his peace. All Negroes sold and bought by me from traders (excepting at my own house) will be free
Manis Jacobs (c. 1782-1839) was the rabbi and president of the New Orleans
Jewish congregation Shanarai Chasset and a leading Jewish citizen, even though he held eleven Black people as slaves. Rabbi
Sharfman writes of Jacobs: "Though unordained, he felt his ability to recite Hebrew prayers qualified him. He proudly signed
his name in Hebrew on bills of sale, as a cachet or seal -- some on his transactions involving the purchase of slaves still
Samuel Jacobs, in 1761, "ordered a Negro girl from New York -- domestic
slaves were popular because hired help was scarce." Jacobs was the owner of the slave schooner Betsey.
Solomon Jacobs (1777-1827) was acting mayor of Richmond, Virginia, in
1818-1819, president of Beth Shalome Congregation, and the first Jew to become grand master of the Masons of Virginia. He
was an agent for the French government's tobacco interests and the Richmond representative for the Rothschild banking house.
He owned a slave named "Esther," and when he died his tombstone epitaph read:
Fond as a Husband.
Indulgent as a Father.
as a Master...
His widow, Hetty, then successfully lobbied the Virginia House and Senate
to allow the sale of a number of Black female captives and children because of the "conduct of said slaves toward their mistress...was
so very malevolent and very objectionable."
In 1830, L. Jacoby held thirty Africans against their will in the New
Joseph Jonas, in an address to the Ohio House of Representatives on
February 25-26, 1861, said, "I am not in favor of slavery, and would not own a slave on any account. But this is not the question.
Slavery in the South is an institution, and the framers of the Constitution guarded their rights and their property."
Israel I. Jones (1810-1877) of Mobile, Alabama, was leader of the Jewish
community in the mid-1800s, as well as being a slave-trading auctioneer. President of Congregation Shaarai Shomayim from 1844-1873,
he was on the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, the first national Jewish organization. On Feb. 6, 1841, he advertised
in the Mobile Daily Advertiser and Chronical that he had "Negroes at Auction," including a "Man
Alfred, 25 years old, field hand; Boy Isaac, 7 years old; Woman Judy, 30 years old and two work horses."
Samuel Jones (c. 1737-1809) was a Charleston Jew who ordered that his
survivors free two of his eight Black hostages named "Jenny" and her son "Emanuel." This selective manumission of an African
woman indicates that she was the victim of rape by the Jew and that her son may have been the result of that crime.
J. Joseph advertised for the return of a runaway African female child
in the Quebec Gazette on July 28, 1791.
Meir Josephson, a Pennsylvania trader, informed Michael
Gratz in a letter written in Yiddish:
...that I may sell my nigger wench at a profit.
So if a ship with niggers should arrive, or a ship with [indentured] Germans you will let me know, because I cannot manage
without a servant. The wench I now have has two virtues, both bad ones. First, she is drunk all day, when she can get it,
and second, she is mean so that my wife cannot say a word to her. She is afraid of her. How did all this happen? A free nigger
wants to court her and to buy her from me. I don't want to give her away for less than 110 pounds with her bastard, because
I bought the bastard too. At present she costs me 90 pounds. So if I can make out with her, I think it is best to let her
go and get another. So if you have occasion to hear of a good nigger wench or of a good servant, you will inform me.
Baruch H. Judah "hired" a Black African woman named "Mary" who was tried
in 1820, and acquitted, for setting fire to the house of her employer.
Isaac H. Judah (1761-1827) of Richmond, Virginia, was a merchant and
Beth Shalome's first minister. He fathered two "mulatto" children named "Philip Norbourne" and
"Benjamin Wythe," the products of the rape of an African woman. Judah's slave "Harry" was charged on March 13, 1815, with
"going at large and hiring himself to Paul Christian, was remanded to jail and Judah summoned to appear the next day and show
cause why he should not be fined for allowing the said slave to go at large and hire himself out."
Manual Judah owned a Black slave named "Shadrach," who was tried in
the Richmond courts in 1805 for stealing a hog. He was found guilty, and given nine and thirty on his bare back.
Samuel Judah was the most prominent of the Jewish slave-traffickers
David S. Kaufman of Texas was a notable proponent of the spread of the
Betsy Levi Kokernot and her son Louis of
New Orleans operated a retail store in the 1830s. In 1832, the sheriff seized part of their stock to pay bills and found that:
Betsy and Louis seemed to have caught an inordinate
number of runaway Negroes, or stopped Negroes carrying money without proper identification; probably much of their trade was
with slave owners.
David Cohen Labatt of Louisiana was devoted to the Confederacy and the
preservation of the slave system.
Joseph Lasalle was active in the Louisiana militia and local politics.
He owned four female slaves in 1830.
Benjamin D. Lazarus sold "A Negro named Sam, about Eighty Years of age,
diseased, and a Negro Woman named Sylvie about seventy five years of Age," for ninety dollars. Dr. Bertram W. Korn comments
on the cruelty of this act:
Perhaps the estate required cash, and undoubtedly
the slaves were too old for any useful purpose, but what future could they have at the hands of a purchaser who would be compelled
somehow to regain his investment?
Jacob Lazarus, Jr., from Charleston, South Carolina, enslaved more than
twenty African hostages.
Sampson Lazarus of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, "had a female slave and
a horse and was a shopkeeper," in 1782.
Ishak Gabay Letob, probably of Speightstown, Barbados, prepared his
will in Portuguese dated August 24, 1698:
To son Jacob Gabay Lettob my slave-girl Juana,
so that she may look after him, he being ill, and she is not to be disposed of by him but at his death she is to go to whichever
one of his brothers she prefers. To grand-dau. Ribca Ulloa the daur. named Peggy, of said Juana and for her heirs at her death
but not otherwise.
Rachel Mordecai Lazarus was "fully aware of the evils of slavery, but,
after a fashion, defended this institution in her correspondence with Maria Edgeworth. Rachel contended that the black under
chattel slavery was no worse off than the European who suffered under wage slavery."
Edwin De Leon (1828-1891) considered those who opposed slavery to be
guided by a "mistaken philanthropy" with a disregard for "Providence" or "God." He was one of the chief Confederate propaganda
agents and vehemently supported slavery with the belief that Blacks are the "bearer of burdens; never a conqueror or a king."
In 1862, he was sent abroad by Jefferson Davis and Judah P. Benjamin on a secret mission to persuade
Britain, France and other countries to grant diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy. He failed after nearly two years and
expenditures of $30,000.
Lewis Leon was a Confederate Jew who said retrospectively: "I still
say our Cause was just, nor do I regret one thing that I have done to cripple the North." Author Charles Segal says that this
statement "is indicative of Jewish loyalty to the Southern cause."
Abraham Levi was in partnership with Edward Newman in New Orleans. Levi's
assets at the outbreak of the war were said to be in the range of $300,000. Records of some of Levi's transactions for the
year 1860 indicate that in January, A. Levi & Co. advanced $7,000 to James Bogan, a planter in East Baton Rouge Parish.
In return, Bogan signed a series of promissory notes that gave A. Levi & Co. a mortgage on his 746-acre plantation and
Jacob Levin of Columbia, South Carolina, was the leader of his Jewish
community in the mid-1800s and a slave-trading auctioneer. An acting rabbi, he was quoted in prestigious Jewish periodicals,
and his wife was director of the Columbia Hebrew Sunday School. He was also the secretary and treasurer of the Hebrew Benevolent
Society of Columbia and a grand master of the Masons. On December 17, 1852, he advertised in the Columbia
Daily South Carolinian the sale of:
22 Likely Negroes, the larger number of which
are young and desirable. Among them are Field Hands, Hostlers and Carriage Drivers, House Servants, & c., and of the following
ages: Robinson 40, Elsey 34, Yanaky 13, Sylvia 11, Anikee 8, Robinson 6, Candy 3, Infant 9, Thomas 35, Die 38, Amey 18, Eldridge
13, Charles 6, Sarah 60, Baket 50, Mary 18, Betty 16, Guy 12, Tilla 9, Lydia 24, Rachel 4, Scippio 2.
The above Negroes
are sold for the purpose of making some other investment of the proceeds, the sale will therefore be positive.
Arthur Levy of New York owned at least one Black woman named "Cresie."
Ash Levy worked with the notorious Davis
brothers in their slave dealings.
Benjamin Levy (c. 1650-1704) was a New Orleans printer and publisher
who bequeathed to his African hostage, "Richard White," the chance to buy his freedom for $500 from Levy's son, Alexander.
The deception was that, as a slave, "Richard White" was unpaid. Additionally, "White" was "never to be sold, Mortgaged, or
hired out for a longer term than one Year at a time, and never to be hired out of the State of Louisiana."
The elder Levy also instructed that each of his eight remaining hostages named "Harry," "Samuel,"
"Joseph," "Ellen," "Martha," "Horace," "Millie" and "Richard," be given a token trinket as a "small memorial of their old
In 1761, Levy joined coreligionists David Franks and Joseph
Marks in the signing of a petition protesting a duty on imported Blacks.
Chapman Levy (1787-1850) was born in Camden, South Carolina, and elected
to the state legislature and served as a colonel in the War of 1812. He was a prominent Jewish lawyer who held 31 Black human
beings as slaves. He moved to Mississippi and operated a plantation until his death. Levy's will manumitted some of his hostages
and retained others. His mother, Sarah, sold her Black hostage "Kennedy" and an African woman to
Levy for $300.
Eugene Henry Levy of New Orleans was an official in the Confederate
Army who said: "The slaves are in their proper sphere as they are at present situated within the boundaries of the Confederacy."
The day before General Robert E. Lee surrendered, Levy was captured and soon released. He made his post-Civil War sentiments
known when he declared that "Negroes are among the masters and have the inclination to be tyrants. The extermination of this
race is a necessary consequence of this state of affairs."
Gershon Levy and Hyam Myers did business
with the notorious Indian murderer Sir Jeffrey Amherst.
Hayman Levy (1721-1789) was born in Germany and came to New York City
in 1748. He made his fortune fur-trading with the Indians and in the Black Holocaust as owner of several ships. His Shearith Israel congregation voted him its president six times.
Hyman Levy was a Jamaican Jewish "specialist" in the Black flesh trade
in the late eighteenth century.
Isaac Levy was the brother of Nathan (see
below) and partner with David and Moses Franks
in African flesh dealing. He worked in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and London and was part owner of the slave ship Crown Gally. He once brought 117 Africans into bondage.
Israel Levy, a merchant of Charlestown, sold an African man named "Thomas
(H)Eskett" to John Evans in 1759.
J. Levy (May be the same as John B. Levy) owned a Louisiana plantation
at Ascension Parish with forty-one Black people working his fields at no wage.
Jacob Levy, Jr. (d. 1837) was active in the Congregation Shearith
Israel of New York and owned slaves named "George Roper," "Mary Mundy," "John Jackson," "Samuel Spures," "Edwin Jackson,"
"Elizabeth Jackson" and "James Jackson," among others. One of his daughters married Moses Seixas,
another married Moses Hays, and another married Joseph L. Joseph, all
of whom were slave dealers or owners.
John B. Levy came to New Orleans in 1828 with 37 Africans on the schooner
Joseph Israel Levy, in his 1786 will, left to the mother of his child
Jabica, "five hundred Rupees, and two slave girls and the garden and the house, with everything belonging unto her to be paid
to her by my executors..."
Levy Andrew Levy, described as a "gentlemen," participated in the extermination
plot against the Indians by providing them with blankets laced with smallpox. He is listed as a resident of Lancaster, Pennsylvania,
with "two female slaves and one house." Levy once had a slave "who preferred freedom with the Indians to servitude under Levy.
The slave ran off with a local tribe."
Lewis B. Levy of Richmond, Virginia, was a "manufacturer [of] all kinds
of servant's clothing." He sold rags to such slave dealers as the Davis brothers.
M. C. Levy of Charleston, South Carolina, had more than twenty African
Moses Levy (c. 1665-1728) was a New York merchant, distiller, real estate
investor, ship and land owner. He became probably the most prominent and wealthiest New York Jew of the 18th century terrorizing
Black humans. He was elected constable of his municipal district in 1719 but declined to serve. He was president of his Jewish
congregation and died holding that office. Levy's slave-trading profits were used to help build the Shearith
Israel on Mill Street.
Moses Levy of Charleston, South Carolina, was the most successful detective
on the Charleston police force. Part of his responsibility was to pursue runaway Blacks.
Moses Elias Levy (1782-1854) was a plantation owner in Florida, Saint
Thomas, Virgin Islands and Havana, Cuba. While in England, Levy attacked the evils of slavery in public forums and written
pamphlets. In Florida, he used dozens of Black Africans to try to establish a Zionist homeland.
Nathan Levy (1704-1753) came to Philadelphia from London on the same
ship (Myrtilla) that brought the Liberty Bell. He established an indentured servant placement service
with his brother Isaac, and on January 3, 1738, they advertised in Benjamin Franklin's Gazette
for buyers for: "A likely young Negroe Man to be sold by Nathan and Isaac Levy, fit for Town and Country."
In 1741, they teamed up with David and Moses Franks
to ship their Black victims in from Africa. Levy was a founder of the Jewish community in Philadelphia and bought land for
the Jewish cemetery in 1740. He was "undoubtedly the city's richest Jew at the time of his death in 1753."
Uriah Phillips Levy (1792-1862) was a ship captain in the navy before
he was twenty, and later a commodore. He held title to Thomas Jefferson's famous estate Montecello,
and to the Virginia plantation Washington Farm, where Black Africans were imprisoned as slaves.
He was a member of Congregation Shearith Israel in New York and charter member of Washington's
Hebrew Congregation. Jacob R. Marcus has written of the contradiction:
Jews in the South knew full well that there
was a slave problem, but like the people about them, they did nothing to come to grips with this evil. Though Captain Uriah
P. Levy wanted to abolish slavery, his wish did not deter him from running his Virginia plantation with slave labor.
Rabbi Max (Menachem) Lilienthal (1815-1882) of Cincinnati was a major
Jewish leader and ardent supporter of the Southern state's right to kidnap and enslave African people.
Alexander Lindo (1753-1812) was a "major importer of slaves" in the
late eighteenth century. He admitted to being responsible for the deaths of over 150 African slaves in the Middle Passage
and 20 more upon their arrival in Jamaica, though he was never punished.
Moses Lindo (1712-1774) of South Carolina was a wealthy planter and
enslaver of Africans, according to the Jewish Encyclopaedia. He ran an advertisement stating that:
"If any person is willing to part with a plantation of 500 acres with 60 or 70 Negroes, I am ready to purchase it for ready
money." Lindo imported 49 slaves from Barbados in the 1750s and in 1756, he bought 2 African male children from John Gordon,
according to a bill of sale. One of his slave ships was named Lindo Packett.
Lindo was reputed
to be one of the best judges of indigo in America or Europe. He was largely responsible for the growth of that industry from
300,000 pounds yearly to over 1,200,000 pounds. "Lindo himself handled millions of pounds of it. He lived to see the indigo
industry employ 10,000 slaves," according to Jacob Rader Marcus.
Aaron Lopez (1731-1782) was the most notorious of the slave dealing
Jews. He was Newport's leading participant in the Black Holocaust, largest taxpayer and the epitome of the Newport slave dealing
Jewish culture. His son-in-law, Abraham Pereira Mendes, carried on the murderous trade and built
massive wealth in his own right. Born in Portugal Lopez moved to Newport, Rhode Island in 1752, renounced his Marrano past
and built an extensive trans-Atlantic slave dealing empire. "What can be said about this most attractive figure," writes Dr.
Marcus, "is that he lived on a baronial scale, maintained an entourage of over thirty persons, including the necessary slaves
and hired servants, and had his own stable and two chaises." He was engaged extensively in smuggling and the owner of between
30 and 40 ships. By 1749, Lopez was generally considered to be one of the largest merchants in the country, shipping every
marketable item including molasses, Blacks, rum, pork and bottled beer. He owned a wharf, arranged for building, chartering,
and outfitting the vessels, hired captains and crews, and kept detailed accounts.
Lopez reportedly launched his career as a slave merchant late in 1761 when he and Jacob
Rodriguez Rivera began to outfit their jointly owned brigantine Grayhound for an African
voyage. On January 7, 1763, William Pinnegar captained a Lopez ship which delivered 134 Africans to Lopez's Jewish agents
in South Carolina, Da Costa and Farr. Four captains made thirteen of the voyages, two of whom died in Lopez's service. Below
are the recorded slaving voyages of Aaron Lopez in the years 1764 through 1774:
Sloop Spry, Capt.
Willaim Pinneger, July 16, 1764 - May 22, 1766, stopping at Barbados, Jamaica, and New York on the return voyage. The cargo
included iron hoops, iron chains and slave shackles.252 Slaves sold: 57.
Brig Africa, Capt.
Abraham All, May 3, 1765 - July 11, 1766. Slaves sold at Kingston: 45.
Sloop Betsey, Capt. Nathaniel
Briggs, July 22, 1765 - August 21, 1766. Slaves sold at Kingston: 40.
Brig Sally (the Spry rerigged), Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, August, 1766 - July 1767. Slaves sold at St. Kitts: c. 33.
Africa, Capt. Abraham All, October 20, 1766 - January 9, 1768. Slaves sold at Kingston: 69.
Hannah, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, May 3, 1768 - May 4, 1769. Slaves sold in South Carolina and Barbados:
Sloop Mary, Capt. William English, June 4, 1770 - spring 1771. Slaves sold in Barbados:
Ship Cleopatra, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, July 1770 - 1771. Slaves sold in Barbados: 96.
Cleopatra, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, June 16, 1771 - May 27, 1772. Slaves sold in Barbados: 230.
Ann, Capt. William English, November 27, 1772 - winter 1773-74 (arrived in Jamaica October 8, 1773).
Slaves sold at Kingston: 104.253
Ship Africa, Capt. Nathaniel Briggs, April 22, 1773 - August
1774. Slaves sold in Jamaica: c. 49.
Ship Cleopatra, Capt. James Bourk, June 30, 1773 - August
1774, Cargo consigned to Briggs. Slaves sold in Jamaica: c. 77.
Brig Ann, Capt. William English,
spring 1774 - March 1775. Slaves sold in Jamaica: 112.
Mortality on these voyages was extremely high, as this passage from the William
and Mary Quarterly suggests:
Captain Briggs had taken aboard twenty-one
slaves at the Windward Coast south of Cape Verde, ten at Cape Mount on the Grain Coast, and sixty-seven along the Gold Coast
-- a total of ninety-eight. However, as Lopez informed his London correspondent, William Stead, there was severe loss of life
at sea, and much sickness among the survivors forced a hurried sale at St. Kitts. Sally's log records the burial of six slaves
at sea, dead "with the feaver and flox"; the loss was doubtless much heavier, as the log does not cover a four-month period
of coasting southward and eastward from the Windward Coast to Cape Coast Castle....The figure, given above, of thirty-three
slaves sold is calculated from the sum realized on the sale of the survivors, who may have been more numerous than this but
of low value because of their debilitated condition.
The Cleopatra was assumed to have experienced very heavy mortality,
according to Lopez biographer Virginia Bever Platt, because the ship had carried a "much higher number of 230 blacks to Barbados
on her next voyage." Using this reasoning and simple mathematics, one could conclude that as many as, or more than, 287 Black
Africans may have lost their lives in these two voyages of the Cleopatra alone.
In the last recorded voyage of the Ann, "[Captain] English reached Kingston
on October 7, having lost five slaves on the voyage but with his people apparently healthy. By the time the sale could be
made, two more had died and the prevalence of 'the Swelling' among the remainder caused a drastic reduction in their value..."
Lopez's other commercial ventures were sometimes called into question. One Caribbean trader bitterly
complained in a series of letters about the quality of the lumber, flour, and fish cargoes dispatched from Newport -- consignments
that often arrived out of season or in leaky vessels to which he had to give time and attention. Flour, too often was of low
grade; staves and hoops for the making of molasses hogsheads were often worm-eaten and fish was putrid from being packed in
insufficient brine. He found it difficult to dispose of such cargoes and implied that slave cargoes were easier to handle
and more profitable.
Dr. Marcus discusses the household and business of Lopez and his utter dependency on free Black
Lopez always maintained a staff of Negro domestics
and in addition often hired Negro slaves from their masters, though in his papers such laborers were always referred to as
servants, never as slaves. At least half a dozen negroes were usually employed at one time at the Lopez shop, storehouse and
wharf. For his living quarters, Lopez supplemented his Negro domestics by hiring an Indian woman to wash and scrub and a white
seamstress to sew and make garments for the family and the Negro household servants.
Lopez took 27 of these slaves to Leicester, Massachusetts, when fleeing the British attack on Newport.
It was also Lopez who was identified as the primary Newport merchant who ignored the non-importation
protest of British tax policies organized by the Revolution-era colonists. The man who fingered Lopez was Ezra Stiles, a leading
clergyman and President of Yale University. He referred to Lopez in his Diary as "a Merchant of the first Eminence; for Honor
and Extent of Commerce probably surpassed by no Merchant in America."
Journeying to Rhode Island with his wife and family on May 28, 1782, he passed Scott's Pond, near
Providence and was thrown by his horse into quicksand where he drowned.
Ships Owned by Aaron Lopez
Haham Eliahu Lopez, the spiritual head of the Barbados Jews of the late
seventeenth century, said that he "would certainly continue in enjoyment of his own two negro attendants."
All references are in the publication: "The Secret Relationsip Between Blacks and Jews".
Moses Lopez purchased a Black woman from John Roosevelt. The sale was
witnessed by Judah Hays and Jacobus Roosevelt.
Rachel Lopez lived in Bridgetown, Barbados, with a family of four and
Aaron Baruch Louzada lived with his family in Broad Street, Bridgetown,
Barbados, attended by five Black slaves.
Rachell Baruh Louzada's will in Portuguese, dated October 29, 1703,
required her sons Solomon and Jacob to "sell everything in the house,
goods, jewels, silver, gold & copper, also slaves, & to pay all my debts, funeral expenses, & doctors bills....To
my daughter Hannah Baruh Louzada a negress named Esperansa, & a diamond ring, also £25 current money with which to commence
seeking a livelihood, & that she may live in sisterly harmony with her brothers...as God commands."
James Lucena was a Portuguese cousin of Aaron Lopez
who found revenue as a shipper in the African slave trade. A refugee from the Portuguese Inquisition, he came to Rhode Island
in the early 1750s claiming to be a Catholic. In June of 1768, he wrote to Lopez asking instructions as he prepared for a
voyage to Africa to kidnap innocent Africans. In the letter he establishes that it was customary for ship owners to pay their
captains with slaves.
Lucena reportedly enslaved at least nine and as many as twenty Africans and owned 750 acres in
Georgia when the trustees of that colony introduced slavery in 1749. He was a justice of the peace in 1766, and in 1771 he
owned 1000 more acres and "sent a vessel to Jamaica for a parcel of Negroes." On March 21, 1770, he placed the following advertisement
in the Savannah Georgia Gazette:
RUN AWAY from the subscriber, on Friday last,
A NEGROE FELLOW, named SAM, about 22 years old, and about 5 feet 6 inches high, is well known in and about Savannah, has his
country marks on each side his face thus |||, his teeth remarkably wide apart, and speaks very good English, had on when he
went away a dark grey cloth double breasted waistcoat and a white negroe cloth under jacket, a pair of green negroe cloth
long trowsers, and a round sailor's cap. Whoever delivers him to me at Savannah shall have a reward of twenty shillings, and
all reasonable charges.
N.B. Said negroe is suspected to be concealed
on board some vessel, and I forewarn the masters of vessels from carrying him off, as they may depend on being prosecuted
to the utmost rigour of the law.
Abraham De Lyon, Sr., arrived in Savannah, Georgia, in 1733, and later
held eighteen Black hostages against their will.
Abraham De Lyon (may be the same as above) left his Savannah, Georgia,
wine- making business due to "the want of Negroes...whereas his white servants cost him more than he was able to afford."
Isaac Lyons of Columbia, South Carolina, owned a plantation and held
numerous African citizens against their will. He imported eight Blacks in 1763.
Samuel Maas of Charleston, according to Professor Marcus, took
only four weeks to be convinced that blacks
had to be watched, disciplined, and, if necessary, ruthlessly punished. Slavery he agreed, was a sound institution; the Southern
economy was built on black labor. The black made an ideal workhand, for only he, stemming from the torrid African lands, could
tolerate the humidity, intense heat, and backbreaking labor of the Carolina lowlands. Undoubtedly, Maas was influenced in
his views by his uncle and by the luxury of the well-appointed home with its massive silver service and numerous, obsequious
slaves ready to respond to his slightest nod -- all this impressed Maas mightily.
Esther Marache sent her "mulatto wench" out to peddle cakes, but "[did]
not want her admitted into anyone's home."
A. J. Marks (This may be Alexander Marks; 1788-1861) was the acting
rabbi in New Orleans in the 1830s, and owned eleven Africans according to the 1840 census.
Joseph Marks signed a petition from a group of Philadelphia merchants
against a tax on Negroes in 1761. Joining him were Jews David Franks and Benjamin
Mark Marks was deputy sheriff of Charleston in 1822, part of whose job
was to punish runaway Blacks.
Mordecai Marks (1739 or 1740-1797) was a merchant and farmer "who owned
his own trotting and pacing mares, a Negro slave, and a small library."
Isaac Rodrigues Marques (d. 1706 or 1707) was a New York merchant, importer
and shipowner from Denmark who dictated in his will that a "good serviceable negro woman" be purchased to serve his "dear
mother" after his death.
Joseph Marx (1771 or 1772-1840) was born in Hanover, Germany, and moved
to Richmond, Virginia, where he engaged in large real estate transactions. He was an associate of Thomas Jefferson and active
in the Jewish community while holding 11 Blacks against their will to perform hard labor at no pay.
Abraham Pereira Mendes (1825-1893) was a Jamaican rabbi, the son-in-law
of Jacob Rodriguez Rivera, and made his money as a slave trader. On May 4, 1752, he advertised
To be sold by Abraham Pereira Mendes, a Parcel
of Likely young Negroes, Piemento, Old Copper, Coffee, etc....If any Person has a Mind to purchase any of the Goods mentioned,
they may enquire of Mr. Daniel Gomez.
In 1767, when on a mission to Jamaica, Mendes reported back to his father-in-law that a consignment
of Negroes was "in such poor order" because of the storage conditions that he could not do anything but sell them off cheaply:
To my great surprise I found the negroes nothing
to what I expected....Captain All's small cargo, however, turned out as we see to consist almost entirely of "refuse slaves,"
and Captain All himself fell ill.
Joseph Mendes, of the town of Speights in the Parish of St. Peters,
Barbados, prepared his will in English dated February 17, 1700:
To my dear & loving wife Rachel M. 3 Negro
Slaves, Mary, Astor she & her boy Matte & the Issue or Offspring of their bodies for ever....To son Moses M. £1000
on marriage or 21st birthday (which shall first happen) & for ever one Negro Woman named Hagar & the issue or offspring
of her body & 2 negro boys named Jack Coger & Tom. To daughter Sarah £1000 on marriage or 18th birthday (which shall
first happen) & for ever one negro woman named Mary & a Negro girl named Evare & the issue...of their bodies.
To daughter Luna £1000 on marriage or 18th birthday (which shall first happen) & £40 [so] that 2 young negroes be bought
for her forever....Ex'ors may sell all such Lands houses & Negroes as I have in this Island for the better adjusting their
Jacob Defonseca Meza of Barbados owned "a certain Molatto woman Isabella."
Abraham Bueno DeMezqueto (Mesquita)--probably
a son of Benjamin Bueno de Mesquita, who, with two sons, was banished from Jamaica on August 16,
1665. Abraham owned a plantation at Barbados in 1692, and was recorded as a slave owner in the census of 1707.
Gustavas Meyers was a staunch supporter of slavery and a Jewish leader.
Moses Michal (or Michaels, c. 1685-1740)
was born in Germany and was a New York merchant in partnership with Michael Asher of Boston. By
1730, he was the largest importer among the Curaçaoan Jews. He was a member of Shearith Israel
and enslaved at least two Blacks named "Tham" and "Prins."
Abigail Minis (1701-1794); In 1740, many Jews left Savannah, Georgia,
because of the restriction against slavery. Ms. Minis and family stayed, waited for the law to change, and then forced at
least 17 Blacks to work her 2,500-acre farm. Her son Philip was president of Savannah's Congregation
Mikveh Israel. Minis named three of the Africans "Sue," "Lizzy," and "Sandy." He advertised in
the Savannah Georgia Gazette, on June 28, 1775:
RUN AWAY, A CREOLE NEGROE FELLOW, named Charles,
well known in Savannah. Ten shillings reward will be given on delivery of him to Philip Minis.
Isaac Miranda was an active trader and land owner in Lancaster County
in 1720. In 1730, the Indians filed a formal complaint against Miranda, who they claimed defrauded them. According to historian
David Brener, "In all probability it was the gullibility and childish wants of the Indians which made them give their valuable
furs in exchange for trinkets, mirrors, rum and blankets. Such was the nature of Indian traders."
All references are in The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews
Moline Family was run out of San Domingo in 1793 when the Africans revolted
against the White man's slave society. They brought with them some African captives, branded with the Moline name, to work
for them in Pennsylvania. Another source lists a Solomon Moline from Cape Francois, who fled to
Philadelphia in 1792 with his family and slaves.
Manoel Rodrigues Monsancto of Brazil was charged with openly professing
Judaism by Inquisitional authorities in 1646. He held a woman from Guinea named "Beatriz," and her "mulatto" daughter "Rachel,"
Monsanto Family of Louisiana included Benjamin,
Isaac, Manuel, Eleanora, Gracia and Jacob. They made frequent purchases of Blacks including
twelve in 1785, thirteen and then thirty-one in 1787, and eighty in 1768. In 1794, Benjamin sold "Babet," a Black woman, to
Franco Cardel. Manuel sold two Blacks from Guinea named "Polidor" and "Lucy" to James Saunders for $850 in silver. As individuals
they were owners of Africans whom they named "Quetelle," "Valentin," "Baptiste," "Prince," "Princess," "Ceasar," "Dolly,"
"Jen," "Fanchonet," "Rozetta," "Mamy," "Sofia," and many others. Isaac repeatedly mortgaged four of these when in financial
Benjamin Monsanto of Natchez, Mississippi entered into at least 6 contracts for the sale of his slaves which would
take place after his death. Gracia bequeathed nine Africans to her relatives in her 1790 will, and Eleanora also held Blacks
as slaves. Manuel Jacob Monsanto entered into at least 12 contracts for sale of slaves between 1787 and 1789 in Natchez and
New Orleans, Louisiana.291 "His family consists of himself and seven Negroes."292 Later, "Jacob Monsanto, son of Isaac Rodrigues
Monsanto, one of the very first known Jews to settle in New Orleans, owner of a several-hundred-acre plantation at Manchac,
fell in love with his slave, Mamy or Maimi William. Their daughter Sophia, grew up to be a lovely quadroon." An excerpt of
one of Benjamin's many slave contracts follows:
Be it known to all to whom these presents
shall come, that I Benjamin Monsanto do really and effectually sell to Henry Manadu a negro wench named "Judy," aged Eighteen
years, native of Guinea, for the sum of four hundred Dollars in all the month of January in the year one thousand Seven hundred
and ninety one; and paying interest at the rate of ten per cent for the remaining two hundred and fifty Dollars until paid;
said negro wench being and remaining mortgaged until final payment shall have been made; wherewith I acknowledge to be fully
satisfied and content, hereby renouncing the plea of non numerata pecunia, fraud, or others in the case Whatsoever; granting
formal receipt for the same. For which said consideration I do hereby resign all right, title, possession and claim, in and
to the said Slave, all of which I transfer and convey to the Said Purchaser and his assigns, to be, as his own, held and enjoyed,
and when fully paid for, Sold, exchanged, or otherwise alienated at pleasure in virtue of these presents granted in his favor
in token of real delivery, without other proof of property being required, from which he is hereby released, binding myself
to maintain the validity of this present sale in full form and right in favor of the Purchaser aforesaid, and granting authority
to the Justices of his Majesty to compel me to the performance of the same as if Judgment had already been given therein,
renouncing all laws, rights, and privileges in my favor whatsoever. And I the said Henry Manadu being present, do hereby accept
this Instrument in my favor, receiving said negro Wench as purchased in the form and for the consideration therein mentioned
and contained, wherewith I am fully satisfied and content, hereby renouncing the plea of non numerato pecunia, fraud, or other
considerations in the case Whatsoever; granting formal receipt for the same. Done and executed, in testimony thereof, at the
post of Natchez, this nineteenth day of the month of February in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety...
Benjamin Monsanto sold land and "a Dwelling House, Store, and two other
buildings, for which I have received payment in a negro, named 'Nat;' to my full satisfaction." Another contract stipulated
"that Don Louis Faure is bound to defend the said sale in case the negro shall be claimed by any other Person."
In a 1792 contract, Benjamin mortgaged his Black slaves:
I do hereby specially mortgage three slaves
to me belonging, namely Eugene and Louis, aged twenty four years each, the first named of the Senegal nation and the second
of the Congo nation; and a Negro Woman named Adelaide, aged twenty eight years, also of the Congo nation; which said slaves
I warrant free from mortgage or other incumbrance, as I have made appear by certificate from the Recorder of mortgages; and
which said slaves I promise and engage shall not be sold nor otherwise alienated during the term of this obligation...
Born in Warrenton, North Carolina, Major Alfred Mordecai completed West
Point and in 1861 was assigned to the army arsenal at Watervliert, New York. He resigned his commission rather than fight
against the Confederates and made these observations of the African and slavery:
[I have] a sort of repugnance to the Negroes
which has increased upon me as I have been less and less associated with them. Therefore, I have never wished to make a home
among them. This feeling is, naturally enough, much stronger on the part of my family; we have seldom spoken of it, but I
am sure that it would be utterly repugnant to the feelings of my wife and daughters to live among slaves, and if it can be
avoided, I should be extremely loathe to oblige them, by residence and habit, to overcome this repugnance, even supposing
it possible....I have no doubt that the race is in a better condition here than they are as savages in Africa, or than they
would be as free men, from all the experience we have seen. But I never wished to be one of the agents in thus bettering their
condition...and I am utterly averse to any participation in the schemes for destroying or weakening the hold of the masters
on their slaves, unless they themselves are willing to abandon it.
In his letter of March 17, 1861, to brother Samuel, Mordecai defended
slavery as a constitutional right:
...it appears to be sufficient to know that
at the formation of our government slavery existed all over the land and was expressly protected by the Constitution from
being interfered with by any authority but the states themselves; that therefore the people who have retained it are entitled
to the enforcement of their constitutional rights with regard to it both in the letter and the spirit.
Furthermore, Mordecai firmly believed that the maintenance of slavery was the result of the activities
of Northern abolitionist and condemned abolitionism, which had "grown to a fearful extent within a few years."
Mordecai's Southern relatives had been slaveholders as far back as he could remember; indeed, his
brother George, a wealthy Raleigh businessman, owned about one hundred slaves.
Augustus Mordecai, brother of Emma, owned a plantation called Rosewood in North Carolina, with many slaves.
Benjamin Mordecai of Charleston dealt in huge sales of Blacks and penned
them up like livestock next to his warehouses. At least one of his captives was named "Abram" or "Abraham." Of his participation
in the Civil War the Boston Transcript reported that Mordecai "has presented to his belligerent
state and city $10,000, to aid the purpose of secession, with the offer besides of a large number of negroes to work in the
In 1857, he advertised in the Charleston Courier, "Prime Field Negros
and House Servants" for sale. They included:
Coachmen and House Servants
Washers and Ironers
Tom, 25 years of age
Patsy, 19; Nurse
Field Hands and Laborers
Sarah, 30; w/ child
Moses, 33; woodworker
Dave, 25; laborer
Henry, 22; tailor
Nancy, 20; with 2 children
Sam, 16; ploughboy
Nat, 30; laborer and sailor
Mordecai regularly shipped slaves to New Orleans between 1846 and 1860 and bought at least 102
slaves at Charleston district judicial sales of the 1850s.
Emma Mordecai was a Jewish relative of the Gratz
and Hays families who enslaved several Black Africans. She described in her journal how the Jews
participated in the lynching of Nat Turner's rebel forces by burning off the foot of an innocent Black man and cutting off
the ear of another. They then rubbed sand into their wounds and horse-dragged them to their death.
The slaves of Emma Mordecai included "George," "Cyrus," "Massie," "Mary," "Georgiana" and possibly
"Phil," "Lizzy" and "Elick." She said of the freed Blacks: "They are as ill-bred as old Lincoln himself....They will now begin
to find out how easy their life as slaves had been, and to feel the slavery of their freedom."
George Washington Mordecai was a wealthy Raleigh, North Carolina, plantation
owner, bank president and slave driver who owned at least one hundred Black Africans. He wrote to a northern Republican in
1860: "I would much sooner trust myself alone on my plantation surrounded by my slaves, than in one of your large manufacturing
towns when your labourers are discharged from employment and crying aloud for bread for themselves and their little ones."
All references are in the publication: "The Secret Relationsip Between Blacks and Jews".
Jacob Mordecai of Henrico County, Virginia held more than twenty African
Mordecai Moses Mordecai, a Russian Jewish businessman in Pennsylvania,
helped Joseph Simon to buy a slave.
Rebecca Mordecai, of Richmond, Virginia, was fined $3.33 in 1839, "for
allowing a hired slave to go at large contrary to the Act of Assembly."
Samuel Mordecai (1786-c. 1865); was a journalist from Richmond who derived
part of his income from his articles in the pro-slavery journal, The Farmer's Register. He regarded
slavery as a natural and desirable condition of society and helped to put down Nat Turner's 1831 rebellion and assisted in
the lynch mob that followed.
Barnard Moses of Charleston, South Carolina, placed the following advertisement
in the South-Carolina Gazette and General Advertiser on November 4,
RUN away from the subscriber, a Negro Wench
called HAGAR, and her daughter called MARY, Hagar is about 40 years of age, speaks very good English. Mary about 12 years
of age, speaks good English, had on when she went away a green frize habit. Whoever apprehends and secures said negroes, so
that the owner may get them, shall receive a Guinea reward for each. Any person or persons harbouring said negroes, many depend
on being prosecuted according to law; a farther reward of Five Guineas will be given to any person who shall give information
of either of the said negroes being harboured by any white persons, on conviction.
N.B. I was since informed the above negroes
crossed Ashley River a few days ago, and suppose they are gone to Mr. William Stoutenburg's plantation, as her relations belong
to him. All masters of vessels are forbid to harbour, or carry them off.
Isaac Moses of Philadelphia enslaved "a certain Negro named Bill of
the age of thirty or thereabouts."
Isaiah Moses enslaved thirty-five Black Africans whom he forced to work
his farm at St. James, Goose Creek, South Carolina.
J. F. Moses of Lumpkin, Georgia was a slave dealer who once advertised:
The undersigned has just arrived in Lumpkin
from Virginia, with a likely lot of negroes, about 40 in number, embracing every shade and variety. He has seamstresses, chamber
maids, field hands, and doubts not that he is able to fill the bill of any who may want to buy. He has sold over two hundred
negroes in this section, mostly in this county, and flatters himself that he has so far given satisfaction to his purchasers.
Being a regular trader to this market he has nothing to gain by misrepresentation, and will, therefore, warrant every negro
sold to come up to the bill, squarely and completely. Give him a call at his mart.
Major Moses was a Jew who gave the name "London" to one of his Black
Meyer Moses advertised in the South-Carolina Gazette for a runaway slave
on September 19, 1771:
RUN AWAY from the Subscriber about a week
past, a negro man named JACK, had on when he went away a soldier's coat, and petty coat trowsers; he is a square well set
fellow, about five feet six inches high, much pock marked in the face; one of his feet is frost bitten; speaks good English.
Any person that will apprehend and bring him to me, or deliver him to the warden of the work-house, shall receive FIVE POUNDS
reward, and if discovered to be harboured by a white person TWENTY POUNDS reward, and if by a negro, TEN POUNDS, on conviction.
Masters of vessels are cautioned against carrying him off, as they must answer the consequence: I have been informed he gives
himself out for a freeman, lately from England and wants to ship himself.
Myer Moses (1779-1833) of Charleston, South Carolina had a long record
of civic leadership as a state legislator, a commissioner of schools, a director of the Planters and Mechanics Bank, a major
in the War of 1812, and a major slave dealer. The following is an excerpt of an advertisement placed in The
Southern Patriot of Charleston on August 14, 1815:
Sales at Auction by Myer Moses
22d August, at 10 o'clock, will be exposed to public sale, at the North side of the Exchange, the following Valuable property:
That well settled farm, on Charleston Neck,
situated but one mile from the Lines, fronting on King and Russel-streets. On the premises is a comfortable Farm House [with]
two very convenient Negro Houses....At the same time will be sold THE FOLLOWING VALUABLE SLAVES
BOOMA, (an African) about 22 years of age,
an excellent jobbing carpenter, and a prime field hand, has been emply'd several years as a market man, in selling vegetables.
(a country born) about 22 or 23 years old, an excellent market wench, speaks French remarkably well, is a plain cook and tolerable
washer, but prefers the attendance of market, or working in the field, and is a prime field hand.
SARAH, (a country born)
about 20 years old, a prime field hand.
BEN, (an African) about 20 years old Born in Africa, a prime field hand and a good
ANDREW, (an African) age unknown, a prime field hand, possesses an uncommon good disposition.
PHILLIS, (a country
born) a cook, washer and ironer.
JOHN, (ditto) her son, a mullatto boy, about 16 or 17 years old, a smart house servant,
understands the management of horse, drives a chair.
ROBERT, (ditto) her son, a mullatto boy, about 5 years old.
family will be sold together or separate.
Conditions - For Lots and Farm, one half cash,
balance payable in 12 months, by Note with two approved endorsers; for the Negroes, cash, or Notes with two approved endorsers,
at 60 days, with discount added.
Indisputable titles will be given, and the Negroes warranted sound and agreeable to description.
Raphael J. Moses (1812-1893) was a lawyer, orator and leader of the
Columbus, Georgia Jewish community and a staunch supporter of slavery. At one time he held title to at least 47 Black people
whom he forced to tend his 20,000 fruit trees. He helped lead Georgia out of the Union and then joined the Confederate army
with his three sons. He was a Florida delegate to the 1847 Democratic convention where he teamed with Alabama secessionist
William L. Yancey to include in the platform the right to carry slaves into the Northwest territories. When this failed he
protested and withdrew his delegation from the convention.
Samuel Moses was a ship owner who formed a partnership with Isaac Elizer
and Jacob Rivera. He rewarded the crews of his profitable ships with Black men and women.
Solomon Moses (c. 1734-1828); Born in Amsterdam, he was Charleston's
constable in 1822, whose job was to punish Africans who sought freedom.
Solomon Moses, Jr. (1783-1857) was Charleston, South Carolina's deputy
sheriff in 1822, whose job, like his father (above), was to punish runaway Blacks.
Clara la Mota purchased a female slave and married Benjamin Monsanto
Sarah A. Motta; Daughter of R. D'Azevedo, from whom she inherited at
least four Blacks and was given an option in the will to free or keep them. She continued to force them to labor for her without
Isaac Motta was a South Carolina resident who, acting possibly as a legal agent or bounty hunter,
placed this advertisement in the South-Carolina Gazette on March 29, 1770:
RUN AWAY from the Honourable WILLIAM DRAYTON,
Esq; at St. Augustine, in East-Florida, two NEGRO MEN; Anthony, about 25 Years of Age, very black, near six Feet high, has
lost part of the first Joint of his left Thumb; Frank, about 22 Years of Age, yellow Complexioned, and pitted with the Small-pox.
They were born on the Estate of the late THOMAS DRAYTON, Esq; at Indian-Land, and are supposed to have attempted to return
thither. Ten Pounds Currency will be paid for each, on being delivered to the Warden of the Work-House.
Dr. Jacob De La Motta (1789-1845) of Charleston enslaved Africans named
"Ann Maria Simmons" and her son "Augustus," who were transferred to his sister Rachel after his death. He also held two other
African citizens whom he called "Sam" and "Sylvia." A physician who was active in politics, he served as minister at the Jewish
congregations in Savannah and Charleston. He was also involved in Masonry and was the secretary of the South Carolina Medical
Society, assistant commissioner of health and founder and president of his orthodox congregation.
Esther Myers (1748-1826) of the Georgetown district of South Carolina
was the wife of Mordecai and enslaved 11 African citizens.
Dr. Henry Myers; According to Jewish writer, Emma Mordecai, Myers joined
the militia and helped to put down the 1831 rebellion of Nat Turner.
Hyam Myers did business with Sir Jeffrey Amherst, the infamous Indian
exterminator. Myers wrote to Samuel Jacobs on September 27, 1761,
I take this opportunity to inform you that
[I] have shipp'd you on board a schooner bound to Quebeck, which will sail in a day or two, your Negro girl, seal, and blank
A subsequent letter identifies the "Negro Girl" as "Jenny" whose price was £65.328
Joseph Myers, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania owned a slave, age 25, in 1773.
Manuel Myers (d. 1799) was a New York merchant, distiller and high official
of Congregation Shearith Israel. To his wife Judith, he left: "my mulatto boy slave, named Harry, during the term of her natural
life, and upon the decease of my said wife, I do manumit set free and release from slavery my said slave named Harry." His
wife died 33 years later.
All references are in the publication: "The Secret Relationsip Between Blacks and Jews".
Mordecai Myers' plantation housed sixty-four slaves.331 Based on regional
records, it may be he or his relatives who are responsible for the following advertisement in the South-Carolina Gazette of
October 24, 1770:
ABSENTED herself from the Subscriber, on Thursday
last, a tall stout NEGRO WENCH, named LUCY, well known in and about Jacksonburgh; formerly the Property of Francis Oldfield,
on Ponpon Neck. She had on when she went away a Callico Petticoat and Jacket: But as she took other Cloaths with her, may
probably appear in other Dresses. TEN POUNDS Currency Reward will be paid to any Person who will give Information of her being
harboured by a white Person, and ONE DOLLAR if by a Negro, on Conviction of the Offender; and FIVE POUNDS like Money to any
one who will deliver her to Mordecai Myers.
Years later he still sought his slave through an advertisement in the Savannah
Georgia Gazette, on May 17, 1775:
RUN AWAY from the subscriber, A NEGROE WENCH,
named Lucy, from Ponpon, formerly the property of Francis Oldfield, said wench supposed to have gone to George Galphin, Esq.'s
or harboured by horse thieves, &c. either Joseph or Brukins Prine. Whoever brings said wench to me shall have one hundred
pounds reward South-Carolina currency; if harboured by white persons, and the same prosecuted. I hereby promise a reward of
five hundred pounds South-Carolina currency.
Mordecai Mires (sic).
N.B. The wench has been absent four years.
Moses Myers (1752-1835) of Philadelphia, held an African named "David
Anderson" against his will.
Samuel Myers (1755-1836) of Petersburg, Virginia enslaved Blacks named
"Isaac," "Judah," "Maria" and "Betsy" and in 1796, bought an African woman named "Alice," probably to sexually violate at
his will, due to the loss of his wife four months earlier. He sold "Alice" shortly after his next marriage.335 The Samuel
S. Myers & Co. in Richmond, held 82 African citizens as slaves in 1830. The Virginia capital was the center of the nation's
tobacco industry, an industry in which slaves were owned by manufacturing enterprises. Samuel S. Myers & Co. was one of
Virginia's leading tobacco manufacturers.
David Naar (1800-1880) was born in St. Thomas, Danish West Indies to
Joshua Naar and Sarah D'Azevedo. According to an island census in 1830, his family, including himself, numbered "2 men, 1
woman, 2 sons and 1 daughter, his domestic staff 5 colored women and his stock of slaves still 1 full-grown."337 Soon thereafter,
the increasing threat of slave insurrections in the Caribbean and the decline of trade caused a considerable number of Jews,
including the Naars, to begin to emigrate to continental North America.
"David Naar wielded a powerful influence as owner
and editor of the Daily True American," writes biographer Rabbi S. Joshua Kohn: "It became the organ of the Democratic party
in central New Jersey" and was edited for more than half a century, from 1853 to 1905, by David Naar and by his nephew, Moses
D. Naar, and by David's son, Joseph L. Naar. .; He was politically rewarded with several prominent positions:
· Appointed as one of the lay Judges of the Court of Common Pleas of Essex County.
· 1843: appointed
Mayor of the Borough of Elizabeth by the New Jersey Legislature.
· 1844: elected a Delegate from Essex County to the State
· 1844: campaigned for James K. Polk as President and in 1845 was rewarded with the appointment
as Commercial Agent of the United States to Saint Thomas.
· 1848: returned to Elizabeth, New Jersey where he was soon elected Recorder of the Borough and
a member of the Borough Council.
· 1851-1852: chosen Clerk of the General Assembly for two successive terms.
Naar used his influence in these positions to promote his white supremacist ideology. As a member
of the committee on the new bill of rights he played a prominent part in its deliberations and conclusions. In the new constitution
of 1844, the word "white" was inserted into the text concerning suffrage which effectively disfranchised Blacks. It was not
until the enactment in 1870 of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States that the right of suffrage
was restored. Furthermore, the word "white" was not struck out of the New Jersey constitution by amendment until the year
Naar was appointed to a committee to prepare an address and resolutions at the Democratic convention held on December
11, 1860, in Trenton. The resolutions passed:
RESOLVED, That we see no remedy for this deplorable
state of public affairs unless the North, in the most prompt and explicit manner, shall avow its determination to remove all
political agitation for the abolition of slavery; shall repeal all acts designed to nullify or embarrass the faithful execution
of the Fugitive Slave Law; shall consent to the citizen of the South enjoying the services of his domestic while temporarily
sojourning here on business or pleasure...
Rabbi Kohn described Naar as one who "espoused the cause of the South and was a strong and irreconcilable
exponent of states' rights and pro-slavery." In the election of November 7, 1860, with Naar's help, New Jersey was the only
Northern state to vote against Lincoln. Among the examples of his anti-Black wisdom: "Is it 'freedom' to destroy the peace,
happiness and prosperity of thirty millions of white freemen, in order to give a nominal freedom and bring into a condition
of actual misery, four million of negroes? Is it 'freedom' of the 'higher law' which ignores the laws of God and man, and
seeks to substitute for the will of madmen and fanatics?"
The Emancipation Proclamation, promulgated on September 25, 1862,
brought forth a vigorous denunciation from Naar:
The injustice of this measure is only exceeded,
we think, by its impolicy, and will serve, we fear, to aggravate the difficulties of our position. What is to be gained by
the emancipation of the slaves in any point of view, we have never been able to discover; but to the contrary, we can perceive
that, if successful, it will be of great harm to the population of the non-slave holding States, both white and colored. In
anticipation of this project, we have more than once admonished our readers of the pernicious effect which must follow, in
a social and industrial point of view, the influx in their midst of a body of Negro slaves, unaccustomed to voluntary habits
of industry or self-control, and we do not propose now to repeat what we have said.
To Naar, the forthcoming Proclamation "will witness the most stupendous act of folly and usurpation
on the part of the occupant of the Executive Chair that has ever been perpetuated by the ostensible representative of the
American people." In a speech at a mass meeting in Trenton, on March 4, 1863, he voiced the opinion that Americans were "cutting
each other's throats" for the sake of a few Negroes and that the abolitionists had wanted to place the Negro above the White
man. Says Rabbi Kohn, "Naar was against Negro suffrage because it would mean that Negroes could hold office. This was too
difficult a thought for him to accept." He condemned the proponents of freedom for Blacks with a curious logic:
This is the case with the fanatical Zealots,
who unfortunately for the country, now hold the reins of Government....They have determined that Negro slavery shall be abolished
and that determination they are bent upon adhering to even at the cost of Constitutional liberty and of the Union itself.
Failing in that they have resolved to have no Union at all.
When Lincoln was assassinated, it was Naar who objected to the recitation of the Escaba (Memorial
Prayer) in the synagogues of Philadelphia. Finally, in an editorial entitled "Treason," the Daily Gazette
& Republican expressed its view of Naar:
...a West India Jew, whose very being is made
of low cunning, craftiness, meaness, and deception, is less to be wondered at, and merely shows to what perfection the animal
can be brought when put under proper training. That future historians will link the name of Naar with those of Arnold and
Judas there is but little doubt, judging from the present course of events.
David Namias was a Barbados planter in 1680 "with a dozen negroes and
twenty acres of land." His household in St. Michaells housed "nine persons (Jews) and five further slaves."
David De Isaac Cohen Nassy of Philadelphia, held two "personal slaves"
(which is synonymous with "sexual slave"). His Jewish ancestors built a whole colony in Surinam based on African slave labor.
Asher Moses Nathan of Baton Rouge, Louisiana was a businessman who loaned
money to plantation owners for slave buying and was himself a slave dealer. He owned an eighty-year-old Black male whom Nathan
attempted to sell when he fell ill in 1807. This practice, in another instance, netted his estate $72 when he sold a 70 year
old Black woman named "Lucretia."
Nathan Nathans was the president of the Beth Elohim Congregation in
Charleston, South Carolina and owned and operated a plantation on the Cooper River using the forced labor of African hostages.
Aaron Navarro's household comprised seven Jews, "and no less than eleven
black slaves....Other Navarros, Samuel and Judith, also owned slaves.349 He dispensed his Black slaves in his will of July
I say that Entitta & her daughter Hannah
are mine, being the daughter & grand-daughter of my slave (negress) Maria Arda; if they wish to free themselves, they
can come to an arrangement with my wife, & no one may prevent or contradict them; this is my order & desire.350
Major Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851) was a journalist, judge, politician
and "was probably the most distinguished Jewish layman until 1840." A prolific proponent of slavery, he felt that "the bonds
of society must be kept as they now are." To emancipate the slaves, he said, "would be to jeopardize the safety of the whole
country." The first Black American periodical, The Freedom's Journal, was launched in response to Noah's racist propaganda
- it characterized him as the Black man's "bitterest enemy."
Benjamin Nones (1757-1826); Born in France, he moved to Philadelphia
and enslaved two African people to build his business. They regularly ran away and by 1793, he manumitted them. He was an
active Mason and president of Philadelphia's Mikveh Israel synagogue for eight years.
Jacob Franco Nunes' household of four used "only one negro slave."
Moses Nunes (1705-1787 or 1797) of Savannah, Georgia enslaved at least
thirteen and possibly twenty Africans. He admitted to repeatedly raping one Black woman named "Mulatta Rose," who bore his
children named "Robert," "James," and "Alexander," and "Frances." He was a landowner and merchant and was a prominent Mason.
His grandson Joseph had five children by the rape of a Black women named "Patience." He tried to sell these children but was
legally challenged when their race was questioned.
Abraham Nunez left to his granddaughter Hester Lopez, "the following
negroes viz. - Old Katy, Old Flora & Katy Casandar & John her children (& the children thereafter to be born of
her body) Ishmael a negro boy....To great grand daughter Ester N. (daur. of my son Morducoy & my grand daur. Rebecca)
my negro woman slave called Casander & Sammy her child & the children she shall have at the time of my decease."
All references are in the publication: "The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews".